3.2: Our brain controls our thoughts, feelings and behavior (2023)

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    learning objectives

    1. Describe the structure and function of the "old brain" and its influence on behavior.
    2. Explain the structure of the cerebral cortex (its hemispheres and lobes) and the function of each area of ​​the cortex.
    3. Define the terms brain plasticity, neurogenesis, and brain lateralization.

    If you were someone who understood the anatomy of the brain and looked at the brain of an animal that you had never seen before, you would be able to infer the animal's likely ability. This is because the brains of all animals are very similar in general shape. In all animals, the brain is layered and the basic brain structures are similar (Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\)).

    3.2: Our brain controls our thoughts, feelings and behavior (2)

    The brain's innermost structures - the parts closest to the spinal cord - are the oldest part of the brain, and these areas perform the same functions they did for our distant ancestors. The "old brain" regulates basic survival functions such as breathing, movement, resting, and eating, and it creates our experiences of emotion. Mammals, including humans, have evolved additional brain layers that provide more advanced functions – for example, better memory, more sophisticated social interactions and the ability to experience emotions. Humans have a very large and highly developed outer layer known as the cerebral cortex (Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\)), which makes us particularly adept at these processes.

    3.2: Our brain controls our thoughts, feelings and behavior (3)

    The Old Brain: Primed for Survival

    The brainstem isthe oldest and innermost region of the brain. It is designed to control life's most basic functions, including breathing, attention, and motor responses (Figure \(\PageIndex{8}\)). The brainstem begins where the spinal cord enters the skull and forms the medulla,the area of ​​the brainstem that controls heart rate and breathing. In many cases, the spinal cord alone is enough to sustain life – animals that have the rest of their brains above the severed spinal cord are still able to eat, breathe and even move. The spherical shape above the medulla is the bridge,a structure in the brainstem that helps control body movements and plays a particularly important role in balance and walking.

    A long, narrow network of neurons traverses the medulla and ponsknown as the reticular formation. The job of the reticular formation is to filter some of the stimuli that enter the brain from the spinal cord and relay the rest of the signals to other areas of the brain. The reticular formation also plays important roles in walking, eating, sexual activity, and sleep. When electrical stimulation is applied to an animal's reticular formation, it immediately becomes fully awake, and when the reticular formation is severed from the higher regions of the brain, the animal falls into a deep coma.

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    Above the brainstem are other parts of the ancient brain that are also involved in processing behavior and emotions (Figure \(\PageIndex{9}\)). WhatthalamusIt isthe egg-shaped structure above the brainstem that applies even more filtering to sensory information coming from the spinal cord and through the reticular formation, and relays some of these residual signals to higher levels of the brain(Guillery & Sherman, 2002). The thalamus also receives some of the higher brain responses and relays them to the medulla and cerebellum. The thalamus is also important during sleep because it shuts off signals received from the senses so that we can rest.

    3.2: Our brain controls our thoughts, feelings and behavior (5)

    Little brain (literally "little brain")it consists of two crinkled ovals behind the brainstem. Functions to coordinate voluntary movement. People with damage to the cerebellum have trouble walking, keeping their balance, and keeping their hands steady. Alcohol consumption affects the cerebellum, which is why drunk people find it more difficult to walk in a straight line. The cerebellum also contributes to emotional responses, helps us distinguish between different sounds and textures, and is important in learning (Bower & Parsons, 2003).

    Although the primary function of the brainstem is to regulate the most basic aspects of life, including motor functions,limbic systemit is largely responsible for memory and emotion, including our responses to rewards and punishments. The limbic system isan area of ​​the brain, located between the brainstem and the two hemispheres of the brain, that controls emotions and memory.Includes the amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus.

    the amygdalato spendof two "almond-shaped" clusters (amygdala comes from the Latin word for "almond") and is primarily responsible for regulating our perception and responses to aggression and fear. The amygdala has connections to other fear-related bodily systems, including the sympathetic nervous system (which we'll see later is important in fear responses), facial responses (which perceive and express emotions), processing odors, and releasing stress-related neurotransmitters. and aggression (Best, 2009). In an early study, Klüver and Bucy (1939) damaged the amygdala of an aggressive rhesus monkey. They found that the once angry animal immediately became passive and no longer responded to fearful situations with aggressive behavior. Electrical stimulation of the amygdala in other animals also affects aggression. In addition to helping us experience fear, the amygdala also helps us learn from fearful situations. When we experience dangerous events, the amygdala stimulates the brain to remember the details of the situation so that we learn to avoid it in the future (Sigurdsson, Doyère, Cain, & LeDoux, 2007).

    Located just below the thalamus (hence its name) is the hypothalamus.a brain structure that contains a series of small areas that perform a variety of functions, including the important role of connecting the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Through its many interactions with other parts of the brain, the hypothalamus helps regulate body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sex, and responds to satisfying these needs by creating feelings of pleasure. Olds and Milner (1954) discovered these reward centers by accident after momentarily stimulating the hypothalamus of a rat. The researchers observed that after being stimulated, the rat continued to move to the exact spot in its cage where the stimulation took place, as if trying to recreate the circumstances around its original experience. After further research on these reward centers, Olds (1958) found that animals would do almost anything to recreate a pleasurable stimulation, including crossing a painful electrified grid to receive it. In one experiment, a rat was given the opportunity to electrically stimulate its own hypothalamus by pressing a pedal. The rat enjoyed the experience so much that he pressed the pedal over 7,000 times an hour until he passed out from exhaustion.

    Hippocampusto spendof two "horns" arched behind the amygdala. The hippocampus is important for storing information in long-term memory. If the hippocampus is damaged, a person cannot form new memories, but instead lives in a strange world where everything they experience simply disappears, even while memories from before the damage are intact.

    The cerebral cortex creates consciousness and thought

    All animals have adapted to their environment by developing skills that help them survive. Some animals have hard shells, others run extremely fast, and some have acute hearing. Humans don't have any of these special qualities, but we have one big advantage over other animals - we're very, very smart.

    You might think that we should be able to determine an animal's intelligence by looking at the ratio of the weight of the animal's brain to the weight of its entire body. But that doesn't really work. An elephant's brain weighs one-thousandth of its weight, but a whale's brain is only one-tenth of a thousandth its body weight. On the other hand, although the human brain is one-sixtieth of its body weight, the mouse brain is one-fortieth of its body weight. Despite these comparisons, elephants don't look 10 times smarter than whales, and humans certainly look smarter than mice.

    (Video) 3.2 The Brain

    The key to humans' advanced intelligence does not lie in the size of our brains. What separates humans from other animals is our large cerebral cortex—the cortex-like outer layer of our brain that allows us to use language successfully, acquire complex skills, create tools, and live in social groups(Gibson, 2002). In humans, the cerebral cortex is wrinkled and folded rather than smooth as in most other animals. This creates a much larger surface area and size and allows for greater ability to learn, remember and think. Folding of the cerebral cortex is referred to ascorticalization.

    Although the cortex is only about a tenth of an inch thick, it accounts for over 80% of the brain's weight. The cortex contains about 20 billion neurons and 300 trillion synaptic connections (de Courten-Myers, 1999). Supporting all these neurons are billions of glial cells (glia),cells that surround and connect to neurons, protect them, provide nutrients, and absorb unused neurotransmitters. Glia come in different forms and have different functions. For example, the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of many neurons is a type of glial cell. Glial cells are essential partners of neurons, without which neurons could not survive or function (Miller, 2005).

    The cerebral cortex is divided into twohemispheres, and each hemisphere is divided into fourpatches, each separated by folds known ascracks. If we look at the cortex, starting at the front of the brain and moving along the top (Figure \(\PageIndex{10}\)), we see the frontal lobe first (behind the forehead),which is primarily responsible for thinking, planning, memory, and judgment. After the frontal lobe is the parietal lobe,which extends from the center to the back of the skull and is primarily responsible for processing touch information. Then comes the occipital lobe,at the back of the skull, which processes visual information. Finally, in front of the occipital lobe (approximately between the ears) is the temporal lobe,primarily responsible for hearing and language.

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    Functions of the cortex

    When German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig (1870/2009) applied mild electrical stimulation to different parts of a dog's cortex, they found that they could make different parts of the dog's body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement on the left side of the dog's body and vice versa. This finding stems from a general principle of how the brain is structured, calledcontrole contralateral. The brain is wired in such a way that, in most cases, the left hemisphere receives sensations and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

    Fritsch and Hitzig also found that movement following brain stimulation only occurred when they stimulated a specific arcuate area that runs through the upper part of the brain from ear to ear, just in front of the parietal lobe (Figure \ (\Page index{ 11 }\)). Fritsch and Hitzig discovered the motor cortex,the part of the cortex that controls and executes body movements, sending signals to the cerebellum and spinal cord. Recent research has mapped the motor cortex even more completely, providing mild electronic stimulation to various areas of the motor cortex in fully conscious patients while observing their bodily responses (since the brain has no sensory receptors, these patients do not feel pain). As you can see in Figure \(\PageIndex{11}\), this research revealed that the motor cortex is specialized to provide control over the body, in the sense that the parts of the body that require finer and more precise movements, such as the face and hands also receive the greatest amount of cortical space.

    3.2: Our brain controls our thoughts, feelings and behavior (7)

    Just as the motor cortex sends messages to specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex,an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives input from sensory receptors in the skin and from the movements of various parts of the body. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is devoted to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area of ​​sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.

    Other areas of the cortex process other types of sensory information. The visual cortex isthe area located in the occipital lobe (at the back of the brain) that processes visual information. If you were stimulated in the visual cortex, you would see flashes of light or color and might remember having the "seeing stars" experience when you were hit or dropped on the back of your head. The temporal lobe, located at the bottom of each hemisphere, contains the auditory cortex,responsible for hearing and language. The temporal lobe also processes visual information, giving us the ability to name objects around us (Martin, 2007).

    As you can see in Figure \(\PageIndex{11}\), the motor and sensory areas of the cortex make up a relatively small part of the total cortex. The rest of the cortex consists of association areaseuwhat sensory and motor information is combined and connected with our stored knowledge. These association areas are the brain locations responsible for most of the things that make people appear human. The association areas are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, thinking, planning, judging, moral reflection, figuration, and spatial reasoning.

    The brain is flexible: neuroplasticity

    The control of some specific bodily functions such as movement, vision and hearing is carried out in specific areas of the cortex and if these areas are damaged, the individual is likely to lose the ability to perform the corresponding function. For example, if a child suffers damage to the facial recognition areas in the temporal lobe, it is likely that he will never be able to recognize faces (Farah, Rabinowitz, Quinn, & Liu, 2000). On the other hand, the brain is not completely rigidly divided. The brain's neurons have a remarkable ability to reorganize and expand to perform specific functions in response to the body's needs and to repair damage. As a result, the brain constantly creates new neural communication routes and reconnects existing ones. Neuroplasticity refers tothe brain's ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or injury. Neuroplasticity allows us to learn and remember new things and adapt to new experiences.

    Our brains are most "plastic" when we are children, as that is when we learn the most about our environment. On the other hand, neuroplasticity continues to be observed even in adults (Kolb & Fantie, 1989). The principles of neuroplasticity help us understand how our brains evolve to reflect our experiences. For example, skilled musicians have a larger auditory cortex compared to the general population (Bengtsson et al., 2005) and also require less neural activity to move their fingers over the keys than novice musicians (Münte, Altenmüller, & Jäncke, 2002). These observations reflect changes in the brain that follow our experiences.

    Plasticity is also seen when there is damage to the brain or body parts represented in the motor and sensory cortices. When a tumor in the left hemisphere impairs language, the right hemisphere begins to compensate to help the person regain the ability to speak (Thiel et al., 2006). And if a person loses a finger, the area of ​​the sensory cortex that previously received information from the missing finger will begin to receive information from adjacent fingers, causing the remaining fingers to become more sensitive to touch (Fox, 1984).

    Although neurons cannot repair or regenerate like skin or blood vessels, new evidence suggests that the brain can be involved in neurogenesis,the formation of new neurons(Van Praag, Zhao, Gage, and Gazzaniga, 2004). These new neurons originate deep in the brain and can migrate to other areas of the brain, where they form new connections with other neurons (Gould, 2007). This opens up the possibility that one day scientists may "rebuild" damaged brains by creating drugs that help neurons grow.

    Research Focus: Identifying the unique functions of the left and right hemispheres using split-brain patients

    We have seen that the left hemisphere mainly senses and controls motor movements on the right side of the body and vice versa. This fact provides an interesting way to study brain lateralization -the idea that the left and right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to perform different functions. Gazzaniga, Bogen, and Sperry (1965) studied a patient, known as W.J., who had undergone surgery to relieve severe seizures. in this operationthe region that normally connects the two hemispheres of the brain and supports communication between the hemispheres, known as the corpus callosum, is cut. As a result, the patient essentially becomes one person with two separate brains. As the left and right hemispheres are separated, each hemisphere develops its own mind with its own sensations, concepts and motivations (Gazzaniga, 2005).

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    In their research, Gazzaniga and colleagues tested W.J. to recognize and respond to objects and written passages presented only to the left hemisphere or only to the right (Figure \(\PageIndex{12}\)). The researchers made W.J. direct look and then they showed, for a fraction of a second, an image of a geometric shape to the left of where he was looking. By doing this, they ensured that - as the two hemispheres were separated - the image of the shape was only experienced in the right hemisphere (remember that sensory input from the left side of the body is sent to the right side of the brain). Gazzaniga and his colleagues discovered that W.J. was able to identify what had been shown when asked to select the object in a variety of ways using the left hand, but he was unable to do so when the object was shown on the right. field of vision. On the other hand, W.J. could easily read written material presented in the right visual field (and therefore experienced in the left hemisphere), but not when presented in the left visual field.

    3.2: Our brain controls our thoughts, feelings and behavior (8)

    Information presented on the left side of our visual field is transferred to the right hemisphere and vice versa. In split-brain patients, the severed corpus callosum does not allow information to be transferred between the hemispheres, allowing researchers to learn about the functions of each hemisphere. In the sample on the left, the split-brain patient could not choose which image was presented because the left hemisphere cannot process visual information. In the right sample, the patient was unable to read the passage because the right hemisphere cannot process language.

    This research and many other subsequent studies have shown that the two hemispheres of the brain are specialized for different skills. In most people, the ability to speak, write and understand language is located in the left hemisphere of the brain. That's why W.J. he could read passages presented on the right side and therefore transferred to the left hemisphere, but he could not read passages that were experienced only in the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere is also better at math and judging time and rhythm. It is also superior at coordinating the sequence of complex movements - for example, lip movements necessary for speech. The right hemisphere, on the other hand, has very limited verbal abilities but excels in perceptual abilities. The right hemisphere is capable of recognizing objects, including faces, patterns and melodies, and can put together a puzzle or draw a picture. That's why W.J. could select the image when he saw it in the left visual field but not in the right visual field.

    Although Gazzaniga's research has shown that the brain is indeed lateralized, so that the two hemispheres specialize in different activities, this does not mean that when people behave in a certain way or perform a certain activity, they use only one. hemisphere of the brain at a time. . That would be a drastic simplification of the concept of brain differences. We often use both hemispheres at the same time, and the difference between the abilities of the two hemispheres is not absolute (Soroker et al., 2005).

    Psychology in everyday life: why are some people left-handed?

    Across cultures and ethnic groups, about 90% of people are primarily right-handed, while only 10% are primarily left-handed (Peters, Reimers, and Manning, 2006). This fact is puzzling, in part because the number of left-handers is so low and in part because other animals, including our closest primate relatives, do not exhibit any kind of imposition. The existence of right-handers and left-handers provides an interesting example of the relationship between evolution, biology and social factors, and how the same phenomenon can be understood at different levels of analysis (Harris, 1990; McManus, 2002).

    At least some handedness is determined by genetics. Ultrasonography shows that 9 out of 10 fetuses suck the thumb of the right hand, suggesting that the preference is determined before birth (Hepper, Wells, & Lynch, 2005), and the transmission mechanism has been linked to a gene on the X chromosome (Jones & Martin, 2000). It has also been observed that left-handers tend to have fewer children, and this may be due in part to the fact that left-handed mothers are more likely to have miscarriages and other prenatal problems (McKeever, Cerone, Suter, & Wu, 2000) .

    But culture also plays a role. In the past, left-handed children were forced to write with their right hand in many countries, and this practice continues, especially in collectivist cultures such as India and Japan, where left-handedness is viewed negatively compared to individualistic societies such as the USA. For example, India has about half as many left-handers as the United States (Ida & Mandal, 2003).

    There are advantages and disadvantages to being left-handed in a world where most people are right-handed. One problem for left-handers is that the world was made for right-handers. ATMs, classroom tables, scissors, microscopes, drills and table saws are just a few examples of everyday machinery designed with the most important controls on the right side. This may partly explain why left-handers suffer more accidents than right-handers (Dutta & Mandal, 2006).

    Despite the potential difficulties of living and working in a world designed for right-handers, there seem to be some advantages to being left-handed. Throughout history, several prominent artists have been left-handed, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Pablo Picasso and Max Escher. As the right hemisphere is superior in imaging and visual abilities, there may be some advantage in using the left hand to draw or paint (Springer & Deutsch, 1998). Left-handers are also better at imagining three-dimensional objects, which may explain why there are as many left-handed architects, artists, and chess players in proportion to their numbers (Coren, 1992). However, there are also more left-handers among those with dyslexia, allergies and migraines (Geschwind & Behan, 2007), perhaps due to the fact that a small minority of left-handers are due to birth trauma, such as being born prematurely (Betancur, Vélez, Cabanieu, & le Moal, 1990).

    In sports where hand strength can be important, such as tennis, boxing, fencing or judo, left-handers may have an advantage. They play a lot of games against righties and learn to handle their styles better. However, right-handers play very few games against left-handers, which can make them more vulnerable. This explains why a disproportionately high number of left-handers are found in sports where direct one-on-one action predominates. In other sports, such as golf, there are fewer left-handed players because a player's hand has no bearing on the contest.

    The fact that left-handers excel in some sports suggests the possibility that left-handers also have an evolutionary advantage because their ancestors may have been more successful at key skills such as hand-to-hand combat (Bodmer & McKie, 1994). At this point, however, this idea remains only a hypothesis, and the determinants of human craftsmanship are still not fully understood.

    main conclusions

    • The ancient brain - including the brain stem, medulla, pons, reticular formation, thalamus, cerebellum, amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus - regulates basic survival functions such as breathing, movement, rest, eating, emotion and memory.
    • The cerebral cortex, formed by billions of neurons and glial cells, is divided into right and left hemispheres and into four lobes.
    • The frontal lobe is primarily responsible for thinking, planning, memory, and judgment. The parietal lobe is primarily responsible for bodily sensations and touch. The temporal lobe is primarily responsible for hearing and language. The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for vision. Other areas of the cortex act as association areas responsible for integrating information.
    • The brain changes as a function of experience and potential injury in a process known as plasticity. The brain can generate new neurons through neurogenesis.
    • The motor cortex controls voluntary movements. The parts of the body that require greater control and dexterity take up more space in the motor cortex.
    • The sensory cortex receives and processes bodily sensations. The most sensitive body parts take up the most space in the sensory cortex.
    • The left hemisphere is primarily responsible for language and speech in most people, while the right hemisphere specializes in spatial and perceptual skills, visualizing and recognizing patterns, faces and melodies.
    • The separation of the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres, creates a "split-brain patient", with the effect of creating two separate minds operating in one person.
    • Studies with split-brain patients as research participants were used to study brain lateralization.
    • Neuroplasticity allows the brain to adapt and change as a result of experience or injury.

    Exercises and critical thinking

    1. Do you think animals experience emotions? What aspects of brain structure might lead you to believe yes or no?
    2. Consider your own experiences and speculate about which parts of your brain might be particularly well developed as a result of those experiences.
    3. Which hemisphere of the brain are you likely to use when looking for a fork in the cutlery drawer? Which hemisphere of the brain are you likely to use when struggling to remember an old friend's name?
    4. Do you think it's a good idea to encourage left-handed children to use their right hand? Why or why not?


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    How can our brains control our thoughts feelings and behavior? ›

    Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body. All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.

    Does your brain control your thoughts? ›

    The frontal lobe is primarily responsible for thinking, planning, memory, and judgment. The parietal lobe is primarily responsible for bodily sensations and touch.

    Which brain controls emotions and feelings? ›

    The limbic system is a group of interconnected structures located deep within the brain. It's the part of the brain that's responsible for behavioral and emotional responses.

    Which part of the brain controls mental Behaviour and thoughts? ›

    Now research reveals an unexpected role for the prefrontal cortex, the area immediately behind the forehead that serves as the control center that mediates our highest cognitive abilities—among them concentration, planning, decision making, insight, judgment and the ability to retrieve memories.

    What controls human behavior? ›

    The subconscious mind determines how our behavior is ultimately carried out, and only a small fraction of that is accessible from traditional methodologies – using surveys and focus groups. As some researchers have claimed, up to 90% of our actions are guided by the subconscious.

    Can we control our feelings and emotions? ›

    While we can't completely eliminate emotions – nor would we want to – we can manage our emotions in such a way that we stay in the driver's seat. This is known as emotional self-regulation. When you develop strong emotional regulation skills, your mental health can improve significantly.

    Does your brain control everything you do? ›

    The brain is a complex organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, temperature, hunger and every process that regulates our body. Together, the brain and spinal cord that extends from it make up the central nervous system, or CNS.

    Do our thoughts control our actions? ›

    Introduction. Your thoughts will influence your words, which determines your actions. Your actions will define your habits which make up your character.

    Do thoughts come from the brain or the mind? ›

    Thoughts, perceptions, feelings, sensations, are patterns of brain activation. Memories are shortcuts to those patterns. Beyond that, no one knows, and those who say they do are lying. It's easy to disrupt brain function that controls physical movement or sensation for example.

    What part of the brain controls decision making? ›

    The Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) and hippocampus are the most critical parts of the human brain for decision making.

    What does your brain do? ›

    The brain works like a big computer. It processes information that it receives from the senses and body, and sends messages back to the body. But the brain can do much more than a machine can: humans think and experience emotions with their brain, and it is the root of human intelligence.

    What part of the brain controls personality? ›

    The frontal lobes are considered our behaviour and emotional control centre and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms. Damage to the frontal lobes can result in: Loss of simple movement of various body parts (Paralysis)

    Who controls our thoughts? ›

    The cerebral cortex, made up of billions of neurons and glial cells, is divided into the right and left hemispheres and into four lobes. The frontal lobe is primarily responsible for thinking, planning, memory, and judgment.

    Is the brain responsible for all human behavior? ›

    The brain receives information and internal and external influences that enable the most appropriate behaviors to be triggered at any time. In addition, our behavior has environmental consequences, which can be experienced as positive or negative for us.

    What determines our behavior? ›

    Behaviour is affected by factors relating to the person, including: physical factors - age, health, illness, pain, influence of a substance or medication. personal and emotional factors - personality, beliefs, expectations, emotions, mental health. life experiences - family, culture, friends, life events.

    Why do you control your emotions? ›

    Managing our emotions helps us make better decisions, big or small. Understanding our emotions allows us to become aware of triggers, so we can gain insights on how to respond in constructive ways.

    What does it mean to control your emotions? ›

    Emotional Control Definition

    Emotional control, or emotional regulation, is about how well we can manage and control our emotions, or more precisely, our emotional reactions. It's about learning to stay calm when handling small problems, and reacting with just the right amount of emotional reaction given the situation.

    How can I control my self? ›

    10 tips on how to improve self-control
    1. Start small. Set small goals and reward yourself for completing them. ...
    2. Think big. ...
    3. Get some rest. ...
    4. Do physical exercise (even a little bit) ...
    5. Download an app. ...
    6. Get to know yourself. ...
    7. Make fewer decisions. ...
    8. Pay attention to what you eat.
    Jun 22, 2022

    Does your brain control how strong you are? ›

    As it turns out, your brain isn't actually a muscle. It's an organ — one that actually plays a huge role in controlling muscles throughout your body.

    What happens when you control your mind? ›

    When you control your mind, You can live life to the fullest. In simple words, you will be more "Happy, Positive, Active and Organized". According to Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), the conscious mind is more powerful and positive than unconscious.

    How powerful your brain is? ›

    The human brain can generate about 23 watts of power (enough to power a lightbulb). All that power calls for some much-needed rest. Adequate sleep helps maintain the pathways in your brain. Additionally, sleep deprivation can increase the build-up of a protein in your brain that is linked to Alzheimer's disease.

    Why thoughts can't be controlled? ›

    Unwanted thoughts are an extremely common symptom of anxiety disorders. Anxiety is the type of mental health disorder that specifically causes negative thinking, and the inability to control the thoughts that come into your head. For some people, anxiety itself can be caused by these thoughts.

    Do our thoughts affect our behavior? ›

    Our thoughts and feelings influence our behaviors, choices, and ultimately, outcomes.” Also connected to our thoughts and feelings are behaviors. Behaviors are our actions or the ways in which we present ourselves to others. Our behaviors outwardly reflect how we are feeling on the inside.

    What is it called when your thoughts control you? ›

    OCD is a common, long-lasting disorder characterized by uncontrollable, recurring thoughts (obsessions) that can lead people to engage in repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Although everyone worries or feels the need to double-check things on occasion, the symptoms associated with OCD are severe and persistent.

    What triggers brain thoughts? ›

    Neurons release brain chemicals, known as neurotransmitters, which generate these electrical signals in neighboring neurons. The electrical signals propagate like a wave to thousands of neurons, which leads to thought formation. One theory explains that thoughts are generated when neurons fire.

    Where do our thoughts go? ›

    The hippocampus is thought to be the place where some memories are first stored. Over time, these memories may then be stored in other parts of the brain, namely the neocortex.

    Are your thoughts really your thoughts? ›

    They are just an idea that your mind presented to you most probably due to an external stimulus. Your thoughts are just as real as you make them. The more attention you give to a thought, the more elaborate it becomes. The bigger you make it, the more it will affect you.

    What is the most important function of the brain? ›

    The brain is the most complex part of the human body. This three-pound organ is the seat of intelligence, interpreter of the senses, initiator of body movement, and controller of behavior. Lying in its bony shell and washed by protective fluid, the brain is the source of all the qualities that define our humanity.

    What part of your brain controls critical thinking? ›

    The Prefrontal Cortex: Home to Critical Thinking

    The executive function control centers develop in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC gives us the potential to consider and voluntarily control our thinking, emotional responses, and behavior.

    Why is it so hard for me to make simple decisions? ›

    Difficulty in making decisions can be caused by several factors, such as a fear of failure and a lack of confidence or information. Indecisiveness can also be a symptom of mental health conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    What are the three main functions of brain? ›

    Your brain enables: Thoughts and decisions. Memories and emotions. Movements (motor function), balance and coordination.

    What are the 7 functions of the brain? ›

    Functions of a Brain
    • Attention and concentration.
    • Self-monitoring.
    • Organization.
    • Speaking (expressive language) • Motor planning and initiation.
    • Awareness of abilities and limitations.
    • Personality.
    • Mental flexibility.
    • Inhibition of behavior.

    What part of your brain controls memory? ›

    Most available evidence suggests that the functions of memory are carried out by the hippocampus and other related structures in the temporal lobe.

    Does the brain affect personality? ›

    Our personality may be shaped by how our brain works, but in fact the shape of our brain can itself provide surprising clues about how we behave – and our risk of developing mental health disorders – suggests a study published today.

    What is the power of thought control? ›

    Power as thought control: The ability to influence others by shaping their preferences.

    What part of the brain controls emotion and empathy? ›

    An international team led by researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York has for the first time shown that one area of the brain, called the anterior insular cortex, is the activity center of human empathy, whereas other areas of the brain are not.

    Does hypothalamus control emotions? ›

    Hypothalamus is involved in expression of emotions

    The hypothalamus also plays an important role in emotion. Lateral parts of the hypothalamus are involved in emotions such as pleasure and rage, while the median part is associated with aversion, displeasure, and a tendency to uncontrollable and loud laughing.

    How does the brain influence your emotions thoughts and values? ›

    Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, are used as chemical messengers to send signals across the network. Brain regions receive these signals, which results in us recognising objects and situations, assigning them an emotional value to guide behaviour and making split-second risk/reward assessments.

    What part of the brain controls anxiety? ›

    The amygdala is responsible for the expression of fear and aggression as well as species-specific defensive behavior, and it plays a role in the formation and retrieval of emotional and fear-related memories.

    What hormones control your emotions? ›

    What are the four feel-good hormones? Dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, and oxytocin. You can boost levels of these hormones with some simple lifestyle changes, like diet, exercise, and meditation, and possibly improve your mood in the process.

    Where do feelings come from? ›

    And yes, emotions are created by our brain. It is the way our brain gives meaning to bodily sensations based on past experience. Different core networks all contribute at different levels to feelings such as happiness, surprise, sadness, and anger.

    What part of the brain controls anger? ›

    When an angry feeling coincides with aggressive or hostile behavior, it also activates the amygdala, an almond–shaped part of the brain associated with emotions, particularly fear, anxiety, and anger.


    1. Placebo Effect, Control Groups, and the Double Blind Experiment (3.2)
    (Simple Learning Pro)
    2. 3.2 Your Brain - Hijacked!
    3. The Benefits of Journaling Exploring Your Thoughts and Emotions
    (Modern Psychology)
    4. NEUROSCIENTIST: You will NEVER LACK Motivation Again
    (Powerful Pill)
    5. Psychiatrist Daniel Amen Answers Brain Questions From Twitter | Tech Support | WIRED
    6. The Power of Positivity | Brain Games
    (National Geographic)


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