Brain and nervous system (for teenagers) (2023)

what does the brain do

The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and how you move and speak. But it also controls things you are less aware of - like your heartbeat and how your food is digested.

Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all bodily functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that carries messages from the brain to different parts of the body. He does this throughRückenmark, which runs from the brain to the back. It contains filamentous nerves that branch out to all organs and parts of the body.

When a message arrives at the brain from any part of the body, the brain tells the body how to respond. For example, when you touch a hot stove, nerves in your skin send a pain message to your brain. The brain then sends a message back, telling the muscles in your hand to retract. Luckily, that neurological relay race happens in the blink of an eye.

What parts does the nervous system consist of?

The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:

  • Brain and spinal cord are thecentral nervesystem.
  • The nerves that run throughout the body make up theperipheral nervous system.

The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing only 3 pounds. However, it has many folds and grooves. These provide the extra surface area needed to store the body's vital information.

(Video) Brain and Nervous System - Real World Science on the Learning Videos Channel

The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue, about 18 inches long and 1/2 inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain to the spine. Along the way, nerves branch out throughout the body.

The brain and spinal cord are protected by bones: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a series of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. Both are cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste.

What are the parts of the brain?

The brain has three main sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

the forebrain

The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It's made up of the cerebrum—the area with all the folds and grooves that usually show up on brain scans—and other underlying structures.

ÖBrainIt contains the information that essentially makes you who you are: your intelligence, your memory, your personality, your emotions, your speech and your ability to feel and move. Certain areas of the brain are responsible for processing these different types of information. These are called the lobes, and there are four of them: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

The brain has right and left halves called hemispheres. They are connected in the middle by a band of nerve fibers (the corpus callosum) that allows them to communicate. These halves may look like mirror images of each other, but many scientists believe they have different functions:

(Video) A Journey Through Your Nervous System

  • The left side is considered the logical, analytical and objective side.
  • The right side is considered to be more intuitive, creative, and subjective.

So when you balance your checkbook, use the left side. When listening to music, use the right side. It's thought that some people are more "right-brained" or "left-brained," while others are more "whole-brained," meaning they use both halves of their brains equally.

The outer layer of the brain is called dieKortex(also known as “grey matter”). The information gathered by the five senses reaches the brain up to the cortex. This information is then relayed to other parts of the nervous system for further processing. For example, when you touch the hot stove, it not only sends a message to move your hand, but also to another part of your brain to help remind you not to do it again.

In the forebrain are the thalamus, hypothalamus, and:

  • ÖThalamustransmits messages to the cortex from sensory organs such as eyes, ears, nose and fingers.
  • The hypothalamus controls your heart rate, thirst, appetite, sleep patterns, and other processes in your body that are automatic.
  • The hypothalamus also controls thatpituitary, thereby controlling growth, metabolism, water and mineral balance, sexual maturity, and response to stress.

the midbrain

The midbrain, below the middle of the forebrain, acts as the main coordinator for all messages entering the brain and exiting to the spinal cord.

the hindbrain

The hindbrain lies below the posterior end of the cerebrum. It is formed by the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Ocerebellum- also called "little brain" because it looks like a small version of the brain - is responsible for balance, movement and coordination.

The pons and medulla, along with the midbrain, are often referred to as the pons and medullacerebral trunk🇧🇷 The brainstem receives, sends and coordinates messages from the brain. It also controls many of the body's automatic functions, such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, digestion, and blinking.

(Video) How Your Brain Works? - The Dr. Binocs Show | Best Learning Videos For Kids | Peekaboo Kidz

How does the nervous system work?

The basic function of the nervous system depends heavily on tiny cells known asNeurons🇧🇷 The brain has billions of them and they have many specialized tasks. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages from the brain to the rest of the body.

All neurons transmit information through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.

intelligence, learning and memory.As you grow and learn, messages keep traveling from one neuron to another, creating connections or pathways in the brain. That's why driving requires so much focus when you first learn it, but then it becomes second nature: the path is mapped out.

In young children, the brain is very adaptable. In fact, when one part of a child's brain is damaged, another part can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to create new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change established behaviors. For this reason, many scientists believe it's important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections - it helps keep the brain active throughout life.

Memory is another complex function of the brain. The things you have done, learned and seen are first processed in the cortex. Then, when you feel information is important enough to remember permanently, it's passed on to other brain regions (like the hippocampus and amygdala) for long-term storage and retrieval. As these messages travel through the brain, they also create pathways that serve as the basis of memory.

Movement.Different parts of the brain move different parts of the body. The left brain controls movements on the right side of the body and the right brain controls movements on the left side of the body. For example, when you step on the car accelerator with your right foot, the left brain sends the message that allows you to do so.

(Video) Nervous System - Get to know our nervous system a bit closer, how does it works? | Neurology

Basic bodily functions.Part of the peripheral nervous system calledvegetative NervensystemIt controls many of the bodily processes you almost never have to think about, like breathing, digestion, sweating, and tremors. The autonomic nervous system consists of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

Ösympathetic nervous systemprepares the body for sudden exertions, like witnessing a robbery. When something frightening happens, the sympathetic nervous system makes the heart beat faster to send blood quickly to the different parts of the body that need it. It also causes the upper part of the kidneys to release adrenaline, a hormone that helps give your muscles extra strength for a quick escape. This process is known as the body's "fight-or-flight" response.

Öparasympathetic nervous systemdoes the opposite: it prepares the body for recovery. It also helpsdigestive tractmove so our bodies can efficiently absorb nutrients from the food we eat.

the senses

Eyesight.Sight probably tells us more about the world than any other sense. light enters theEyeforms an inverted image on the retina. The retina converts light into nerve signals for the brain. The brain then flips the image and tells you what you see.

Listen.Every sound you hear is the result of sound waves entering youearsand makes your eardrum vibrate. These vibrations then travel along the tiny bones in the middle ear and become nerve signals. The cortex then processes these signals and tells you what you are hearing.

I like.The tongue contains small clusters of sensory cells called taste buds that respond to chemicals in food. The taste buds respond to sweet, sour, salty, bitter and salty. The taste buds send messages to the areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for taste processing.

(Video) How Your Brain Works

Odor.The olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril respond to the chemicals you breathe in and send messages to the brain through specific nerves.

Toque.ÖFirstcontains millions of sensory receptors that collect information related to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain and send it to the brain for processing and response.


How can I improve my child's nervous system? ›

Think walking or yoga or jogging. Movement breaks are a must in the classroom to keep students engaged and regulated. If a child is struggling, take a walk with them - even better - take a walk outside. Just walk and be in the moment.

At what age does the nervous system mature? ›

At just six weeks, the embryo's brain and nervous system begin to develop, although the complex parts of the brain continue to grow and develop through the end of pregnancy, with development ending around the age of 25.

How is the nervous system affected by age? ›

As you age, your brain and nervous system go through natural changes. Your brain and spinal cord lose nerve cells and weight (atrophy). Nerve cells may begin to pass messages more slowly than in the past. Waste products or other chemicals such as beta amyloid can collect in the brain tissue as nerve cells break down.

What does the brain do in the nervous system? ›

The brain is a complex organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, temperature, hunger and every process that regulates our body. Together, the brain and spinal cord that extends from it make up the central nervous system, or CNS.

What vitamins improve the nervous system? ›

Neurotropic B vitamins play crucial roles as coenzymes and beyond in the nervous system. Particularly vitamin B1 (thiamine), B6 (pyridoxine), and B12 (cobalamin) contribute essentially to the maintenance of a healthy nervous system.

Which foods improve nervous system? ›

Six Great Plant-Based Foods to Fight Nerve Pain
  • Green and leafy vegetables. Broccoli, spinach and asparagus all contain vitamin B, a nutrient important for nerve regeneration and nerve function. ...
  • Fruits. Eat at least one fruit daily to help heal damaged nerves. ...
  • Zucchini. ...
  • Sweet potato. ...
  • Quinoa. ...
  • Avocado.
Mar 30, 2021

What happens to the nervous system during puberty? ›

During puberty, the increases in estrogen and testosterone bind receptors in the limbic system, which not only stimulates sex drive, but also increases adolescents' emotional volatility and impulsivity. Changes in the brain's reward sensitivity that occur during puberty have also been explored.

What are the 3 main problems that can affect the nervous system? ›

Some serious conditions, diseases, and injuries that can cause nervous system problems include:
  • Blood supply problems (vascular disorders).
  • Injuries (trauma), especially injuries to the head and spinal cord.
  • Problems that are present at birth (congenital).

What are 3 common nervous system disorders? ›

Here are six common neurological disorders and ways to identify each one.
  • Headaches. Headaches are one of the most common neurological disorders and can affect anyone at any age. ...
  • Epilepsy and seizures. ...
  • Stroke. ...
  • ALS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ...
  • Alzheimer's disease and dementia. ...
  • Parkinson's disease.
Apr 5, 2021

At what age does brain function decline? ›

“Cognitive decline may begin after midlife, but most often occurs at higher ages (70 or higher).” (Aartsen, et al., 2002) “… relatively little decline in performance occurs until people are about 50 years old.” (Albert & Heaton, 1988).

What are the 3 importance of nervous system? ›

Movement, balance, and coordination. Sleep. Healing and rehabilitation. Stress and the body's responses to stress.

What are the 4 main functions of the nervous system? ›

Your nervous system is your body's command center. Originating from your brain, it controls your movements, thoughts and automatic responses to the world around you. It also controls other body systems and processes, such as digestion, breathing and sexual development (puberty).

What supplements can calm a nervous system? ›

Top 10 evidence-based supplements for anxiety
  • Background.
  • Vitamin D.
  • Vitamin B complex.
  • Magnesium.
  • L-theanine.
  • Multivitamins.
  • Omega-3.
  • Valerian root.

Which juice is good for nerves? ›

Orange juice is rich in vitamin C, with 1 cup (240 mL) providing 93% of the Daily Value (DV). Interestingly, this vitamin may offer neuroprotective benefits ( 10 ).

How do you get rid of a weak nervous system? ›

How to improve weak nervous system
  1. Exercise daily. Here, exercise does not only mean physical exercise; it also involves activities that will sharpen your mind. ...
  2. Exposure to sunlight. ...
  3. Walk barefoot on the ground. ...
  4. Right sleep cycle. ...
  5. Add meditation to the list. ...
  6. Maintain a healthy diet.

What foods damage the nervous system? ›

The 7 Worst Foods for Your Brain
  • Sugary Drinks. Share on Pinterest. ...
  • Refined Carbs. Refined carbohydrates include sugars and highly processed grains, such as white flour. ...
  • Foods High in Trans Fats. ...
  • Highly Processed Foods. ...
  • Aspartame. ...
  • Alcohol. ...
  • Fish High in Mercury.
Jan 28, 2018

Which fruit is best for brain? ›

Certain fruits such as oranges, bell peppers, guava, kiwi, tomatoes, and strawberries, contain high amounts of vitamin C. Vitamin C helps prevent brain cells from becoming damaged and supports overall brain health. In fact, a study found that vitamin C can potentially prevent Alzheimer's.

Which fruit helps you calm your nervous system? ›

Berries. If you are a fruit lover, we have great news—berries have natural properties that can boost brain health and calm your nervous system. Blueberries, raspberries, and more are all packed with vitamins and minerals that the nervous system craves.

What part of the brain changes most during adolescence? ›

During adolescence, brain cells continue to bloom in the frontal region. Some of the most developmentally significant changes in the brain occur in the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in decision making and cognitive control, as well as other higher cognitive functions.

Which part of the brain changes the most during puberty? ›

Subcortical brain areas, especially the limbic system and the reward system, develop earlier, so that there is an imbalance during adolescence between the more mature subcortical areas and less mature prefrontal areas. This may account for typical adolescent behavior patterns, including risk-taking.

What role does the brain play during puberty? ›

The brain signals the body to start puberty by passing along messages in the form of hormones. Hormones are small molecules made by your body that travel in your bloodstream to various parts of the body, including the brain.

How can I test my nervous system? ›

What are some diagnostic tests for nervous system disorders?
  1. CT scan. ...
  2. Electroencephalogram (EEG). ...
  3. MRI. ...
  4. Electrodiagnostic tests, such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV). ...
  5. Positron emission tomography (PET). ...
  6. Arteriogram (angiogram). ...
  7. Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). ...
  8. Evoked potentials.

How do you test for nervous system problems? ›

These tests may include one or more of the following:
  1. Blood and/or urine tests.
  2. Imaging tests such as an x-ray or MRI.
  3. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) test. ...
  4. Biopsy. ...
  5. Tests, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG), which use small electric sensors to measure brain activity and nerve function.
Sep 9, 2021

How can I repair my nervous system naturally? ›

A person can use exercise to improve the functioning of the nerves that serve the muscles and other peripheral parts of the body. Increasing the activity in the peripheral nervous system strengthens the nerves, in the same way that exercise strengthens the muscles.

How do you fix a weak nervous system? ›

A balanced, low-fat diet with ample sources of vitamins B6, B12, and folate will help protect the nervous system. Make sure that your diet contains lots of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Drink plenty of water and other fluids. This helps prevent dehydration, which can cause confusion and memory problems.

What is a natural remedy for nervous system? ›

Spend a few minutes stretching out your neck, shoulders, arms and lower back. This is also a great way to refocus your mind and relieve mental stress. Walking: You can walk for 30 minutes or an hour for exercise, but even a brisk 10-minute walk can naturally calm your nerves. Try to take your walks in nature.

What are the top 3 common nervous system disorders? ›

Among the most common are epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and stroke.

Neurological disorders are central and peripheral nervous system diseases, that is, they occur in the brain, spine, and multiple nerves that connect both.

What foods calms the nervous system? ›

Good sources of these vitamins include citrus fruits, berries, dark chocolate and herbal teas such as lavender or chamomile (avoid teas with caffeine). For the B vitamins in particular, choose whole grains and nuts.

How do you clean out your nervous system? ›

Here are some helpful, actionable tips you can try the next time you need to calm down.
  1. Breathe. ...
  2. Admit that you're anxious or angry. ...
  3. Challenge your thoughts. ...
  4. Release the anxiety or anger. ...
  5. Visualize yourself calm. ...
  6. Think it through. ...
  7. Change your focus. ...
  8. Have a centering object.
Feb 9, 2021

What calms nerves fast? ›

But here are 9 calming techniques that do work – and they work quickly at that.
  • Just breathe. ...
  • Close your eyes and count to 10 slowly. ...
  • Chew a piece of gum. ...
  • Phone a friend – preferably a funny one. ...
  • Smell lavender. ...
  • Curl up with your cat or dog. ...
  • Listen to calming music. ...
  • Exercise your body.
Jan 7, 2021

Can the nervous system repair itself? ›

Injured nerve cells in the central nervous system typically do not regenerate. However, this part of the nervous system can reorganize in response to an injury. This is called "plasticity." Luckily, the brain has a lot of built-in redundancy.


1. Nervous System for Kids | Nervous System Facts | What is the Nervous System? | Brain Facts for Kids
2. The Nervous System | Video for Kids
(learning junction)
3. The Nervous System In 9 Minutes
4. The Nervous System- Animation-Video for Kids -from
5. Brain 101 | National Geographic
(National Geographic)
6. Why Teenagers Are Reckless...
(Institute of Human Anatomy)


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